2016-07-15 15:06



7月16日托福写作预测小范围 7月16日托福口语预测小范围
7月托福写作预测大范围 7月托福口语预测大范围


1. Which of the following personalities you admire most: creativity, courage, or intelligence

2. Talk about two schools that you’ve been to. Explain what are the differences between them?

3. Talk about one great aspect of the educational system of your country.

4. What is the most effective way of study: class discussion, repeat class material, or take notes.

5. Your friend has just got a job which is far from his home. Do you think he should take this job or not?

6. Your friend is about to start a new job. What kind of suggestions would you like to offer to him

7. Talk about a person who you like to talk with, either a family member or friend. Explain why you like to talk to this person?

8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of children playing video or computer games.

9. What can we do to reduce the air pollution?

10. Agree or disagree: students should be allowed to park their cars on campus.

11. Talk about a thing you always want to do but have no time to do it. Explain why you want to do this thing?

12. Your friend has recently received a large amount to money. How would you suggest him to spend this money.

13. Some schools require students to finish reading lists during school break. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this requirement.

14. The advantages and disadvantages of using robots.

15. Talk about a volunteer work you are interested in: talking with patients, reading for patients, or taking care of the family of the patients.

16. Talk about a change that has happened in your country. How this change affects people’s lives?

17. How should students deal with their homesickness.

18. Talk about a subject you like to study. Explain why you like this subject?

19. Talk about a type of movie that you don’t like most: action movie, romance, or science fiction movie.

20. Your university will sponsor one of the following activities for students, an outdoor camping night, a musical festival to experience the local culture or a computer game contention in the dormitory. Which one do you think it’s the best to form new friendship and establish solidarity among students?



1. Some people like to study/work while listening to the music. Others prefer to study/work in quite places. Which do you prefer?

2. When buying high-tech products, some prefer to buy them when they first come out. Others prefer to buy them later when the price goes down. Which do you prefer?

3. Agree or disagree: cellphones are necessary for someone to run a successful business

4. Some students like to study with others. Others prefer to study by themselves. Which do you prefer?

5. Some people like to watch games as the audience. Others prefer to entering the court and joining in the game as a member. Which do your prefer and why?

6. When learning how to use a new product, some prefer to read instructions/guidelines. Others prefer to figure out how to use it by themselves. Which do you prefer?

7. Some people prefer to live in old houses. Others prefer to live in new and modern places. Which do you prefer?

8. Agree or disagree: It is better to live in a place where the climate stays always the same all year around.

9. Agree or disagree: people today don’t have to worry about memorizing dates of important historical events, since the information can be easily found on the internet.

10. Agree or disagree: people should dress themselves following the fashion trend.

11. Some people prefer to dress formally when they work. Others prefer to dress casually. Which do you prefer?

12. Some people prefer to get advice from old people. Others prefer to get advice from their friends. Which do you prefer?

13. Some prefer to do outdoor activities in summer. Others prefer to do outdoor activities in winter. Which do you prefer and why?

14. Some people prefer to sit in the front row when they have classes. Others prefer to sit in the back row. Which do you prefer and why?

15. Agree or disagree: rich people should help the poor people.

16. Some people prefer to finish reading a book in one setting, others prefer to read a few pages each time. Which do you prefer? Explain your answer in details.

17. When studying abroad, some students prefer to live by themselves or with their friends, others prefer to live with a local family. Which do you think is better?

18. Some people prefer to collect old things, others prefer to throw things away after they’re done with them. Which do you prefer to do?

19. Do you agree or disagree with the statement that children should start school before the age of 5 or 6?

20. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement, it’s a good idea for first year students to join a sport club or any other kinds of campus organizations.

Task 3:


The school plans to close the gym for 2 weeks during the spring break for some minor renovations. The woman in the conversation agrees.

First, the renovations won’t cause much inconvenience because few students will stay on campus during the break. Those who do stay usually focus on their study and seldom use the gym. Like when she was staying on campus to finish up a project, she went to the gym once and no one was there. Second, outdoor facilities are still available if students do want to exercise. It is quite warm and actually perfect for outdoor activities.


阅读:学校说下学期开始给新生做的campus tour就不由admin来做了,让高年级学生自己做




Passage 一个letter关于教学楼内improvement proposal. 一是在每层楼多设 power plug. 二是每层楼设打印机。

Conversation:男生同意这个建议。第一条他说现在很多学生都有laptop. 举了个自己的例子,说他带laptop 去上课,但没电了,他找不到power plug, 跑了很远充电。第二条是学生有可能在课间完成assignment, 需要打印。



jazz band 要在 afternoon 在校园的 lawn 开 concert ,woman 不满意 因为 1. 学生要学习, 会打扰,evening 更好 2. 很多人聚堆会踏坏草坪

The jazz band is going to hold free concerts on the lawn on campus in the afternoon.

The woman disagrees with it.

Reason 1: Students study in the afternoon, so concerts will disturb them. It’s better to have concerts in the evening.

Reason 2: Too many people standing on the lawn will destroy it.



学校要建个休息室给不住学校的学生用,可以放书,有locker,放一些bus schedule。男生不同意一:住学校的同学也需要,因为宿舍很远。图书馆已经有locker,不需要再建。二:没必要专门为放bus schedule建休息室,网上电话都可以查。








Suggestion: University should allow freshmen to part their cars on campus.

Reason 1: it’s easier for them to find a job

Reason 2: they can drive home at weekends


The woman disagrees.

Reason 1: freshmen are super busy with their study, it’s unnecessary for them to find a job

Reason 2: driving home at weekends will only make them more homesick and make it harder for them to settle in the new environment




estimation survey(好像是这个词)就是估算了,举例:公司调查停车位,只要大概了解多少员工就可




The letter proposes the school should open classes outside the classroom because good scenery will make the students focus and avoid boredom and the school has installed some benches and seats outside.

The student disagrees with the proposal.

First, there are too many distractions outside. Students will be distracted when friends are passing through.

Second, there aren’t enough seats available, it’s inconvenient for students to take notes if they have to stand there.










女生觉得 不好, 1)报社人员也是学生,不一定给出什么好建议。

2)即使好建议, 也不利于学生的长远发展, 还是培养独立意识比较好。



阅读:【公开信】:小报上刊登了来自一个学生的公开信. 倡议大学应该to build an electronic board (电子告示板)at student center.

好 处: 1. make student get information about coming up events easily rather than acquiring news at different places on campus by posters.


2. 学校也会更整洁,因为墙上没海报了

听力:【学生议论】:男学生觉得这主意interesting, 女生反对这个计划.


It is better to get news from different locations on campus because

1. they are everywhere (more than one place). If they do not go to student center, they will miss the notice. 举了她在图书馆看到海报,所以didn't miss a show / concert的例子.

电 子告示板不一定能够像预想的那样,让那么多人获取信息,因为很多人不愿意花时间特意经过电子告示板来看有什么新的消息。举例:她自己上周五去了图书馆看到 海报,所以didn‘t miss a show / concert,如果没有去过就看不到了,所以一个信息不能只在一个地方发布。

2. Even though the new bulletin board was estabilished, students will still do posters because of it is convenient (没有人会提交information, 然后再等它post出来)

question:explain the woman’s opinion towards the suggestion and why she holds that opinion.





1、增加人数减少了communication with faculty,降低了小课堂的参与程度

2、既然有更多的学生,就可以获得更多的钱,就可以请更多的faculty解决了人力不足的问题。简言之就是 more students, more money, more faculty







Reading: Only qualified students have the right to work at the computer center. There are 3 reasons for this, but they are irrelevant to the speaking part.


Man: I don't think it works.


1)There should be a minimum grade requirement. How do you decide if a student is qualified enough? The university should offer a computer repair course. (这个地方我不是很确定)

2)Even when prospective students' pass the minimum grade requirement, they should only be allowed to handle situations that aren't overly complicated.



Reading Part:

Nowadays, college newspaper hires students from different majors to write for them articles. In the future, they should only hire journalism students to write. This way they can deal with students who are actually interested in news and have more articles completed.

Listening part: Disagree

1) Students in other majors may also be interested in writing news pieces, so the school should encourage those students to write for college newspaper as well. Take this history major for example. He wants to enter the news industry in the future.

2) Having more articles isn't important. There is no point in having too many articles coming in, because the newspaper may not have the resources and time to deal with editing so much writing. The process of preparing an article is complicated, as it includes the efforts of both the editors and the writers. There is a lot of back and forth between those who write and those who review and edit.



 Task 3



好处1:当地居民能够得到free entrainment;



理由1:nearby没有什么theater, 来回的交通费加上演出费很贵。开放学校剧院能让当地居民不用跑很远就能欣赏到professional的演出;

理由2:男生自己作为一个actor, 觉得观众多可以给他鼓励。举例说当表演一段幽默戏的时候,底下只坐了一半人,没什么人笑,会影响表演质量。相反,要是人多,反响热烈,表演也更有劲了。

Question:Explain the man’s opinion and why he holds that opinion.





Task 4:


Recruitment: Insects release signals to inform other insects to come and cooperate. For example, there is a type of ant called the fire ant that live in nests in South America. Some ants have a special job which is to leave the nests to find food. When one ant finds a piece of fruit too big for it to carry back, it will walk back to recruit more ants while releasing a chemical that forms a trail on the way. When it arrives, other ants can then follow the trail and find the fruit and then carry it back together.



Definition: Environment impact assessment, ""The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project.”

Example: The professor gives an example of a construction company. The company was going to build a shopping center on a large land. Before the construction, they did a study and found the land was wetland. Their original plan was to fill solid soil into this land. But the environment impact assessment said that the wetland was very important for the environment. It could prevent flooding because it could hold water. So they decided not to fill the land and cancel this plan. Alternatively, they moved to another piece of land.



阅 读部分讲到实验考古学,研究人员运用古人的技术和工具来实践。听力部分讲了个例子,说有一块大陆和一个岛,这个岛上的人最早是不是从这个大陆来的呢?大陆 上的人有木有这个能力到岛上去。于是研究人员就用当年的技术、木头和绳索造了个木木筏,然后坐这个木筏穿过这片海洋,证明大陆上的人是有能力去岛上的,所 以很可能是岛上的人的来源。





  例子:如果一个男生,上车并且打开notebook 然后写东西:

  一个女人早上遇到大学同学,就回想起大学生活。所以她认为这个男生是学生并且在work for classes 或work for due paper




Task 4:

anticipated emotion。人们采取行动之前会对自己做了这个事情之后会有一个怎样的心情有一个估测,然后根据这个估测决定自己是不是要做那件事。lecture 里,教授举例子说有一次去给妹妹买生日礼物,发现一件很想买的 jacket,但是买了 jacket 之后就只能给妹妹买很便宜的小礼物,于是他就想如果真的买了 jacket 的话他肯定会很愧疚,所以最后决定还是不买了


Anticipated emotion: Before doing something, people will anticipate the kind of emotion they might have after doing it, and therefore decide whether they will do it or not based on the emotion.

Example: The professor went to buy his sister a birthday present, but saw a jacket he really wanted. If he bought the jacket, he would have to buy a cheaper present for his sister. Then thought about how he would feel if he had bought the jacket and thought he would feel guilty, so he decided not to buy the jacket.



Task 4


  Reading material:广告最常用的诉求策略就是affiliation:a sense of being member of certain group.就是群体归属感。经常表现为两种方式:做对的事,成为群体一员;做错的事,被群体抛弃。

  Listening material:广告商经常采取的营销策略,就是品牌归属感诉求。举某种苏打水Suda为例。


  要么是一个人boy在酒吧里,灯红酒绿,他开了一瓶Suda,但很不幸是错的品牌brand,突然间全场安静,朋友moving away,就是因为他开了错的Suda,就被群体孤立。


  答案:The Reading material gave the definition of affiliation, that is……It manifests in two ways:…

  In the listening material, the professor keeps on talk about it by introducing two examples:…











Reading part:
backward framing事后重塑
Listening part:
Professor 举例说,他们提供了coffee sample给一组愿意接受市场调查的人喝,在他们不知情的状况下加了盐和醋,喝起来味道会怪怪的。喝完coffee后,给他们看了一组广告,广告里人们 坐在一起喝咖啡,很happy并且还面带微笑。因为看了广告,所有人都还是跟广告里面的人一样评价说这咖啡很棒。



natural consequence 阅读讲的小孩做错事,大人口语不用惩罚,由着做错事的结果来惩罚孩子。 听力,教授给了个例子,教授5岁的女儿经常把玩具放在后院,平常教授都帮女儿收拾。 一天女儿还是把玩具放在后院,教授没有帮收拾,那天晚上下雨,把她的玩具损坏了,女儿在这件事后认识到自己的错,以后再也不帮玩具放后院



4. 大学旁边住房问题,rent等,听力里的woman完全不同意,大概说了3个原因(我是说了3个).1.贴广告不一定能和需要系的人2.rent相比其他 学校已经很低3.一些学生喜欢在summer住在学校附近(这个跟新policy怎么联系上的,忘记了) 问题就是summary reasons.



4. Reading part: Priority Effects

environment before the other species come and avoid them to utilize the habitat.

Listening part:

alter the

Priority effects occur when a species that arrives first at a site impacts a species that arrives

later by reducing the availability of space or resources. The species coming first may

There’s a kind of small ants(文中始终未给出该蚂蚁名称), when they first arrive a new habitat, say an “askentia(音) tree”, their unique habit is to eat part of the tree which produces nectar, because they don’t rely on it. They are altering the environment before any other species come.

There is a kind of bigger ants, they’re more aggressive and can easily occupy the trees as they want, and can force the smaller ants to leave. However, they rely on the nectar produced by “askentia” tree very much. So the smaller ants stop the tree producing nectar to avoid the bigger ants to take up the tree, so that they can stay living there.

How does the example in the listening part explain the concept of priority effects?



阅 读:【课文要点】: Negative Ideation: a method used by people to resist desires by adding something negative. 就是说通过联系不好的情况来resist坏东西,帮人解决坏习惯.Brood parasites(孵育寄生动物): animals that use a unconventional tactic to let other animals hatch their offspring for them.

就 是说通过联系不好的情况来resist坏东西,帮人解决坏习惯。即 make negative associations with the thing, 这样就可以让这个东西变得less appealing and more resistible。教授用一个自己的例子解释。

听 力:【教授举例】: 教授举的他自己戒除巧克力的例子. 教授很喜欢loves chocolate bar because it is tasty, 但吃太多不好. But chocolate is not good. So he used the method of negative ideation to refuse chocolate. 后来Whenever he wanted to buy chocolate bar he would think it is associate with mud which is the mixture of dirt and water, 来reduce the temptation, 就戒了he stopped buying.


question:用听力的例子解释对negative ideation的理解



阅读:动物有固定的patterns of behavior

听力:1、一种小鱼:male fish会do attack dance to the finish entering its territory 而且是有red mark的,如果没有red mark就不会

   2、goose:female鹅生过蛋后会move its head back and forth,但是当它的egg被moved away 以后,它仍然这样


问题是:讲一讲什么是动物的这种惯性行为(文中用了缩写,好象是AFS 还是FAS记不清了),然后讲讲lecture中间的例子如何证明的。



广告应该忠实于产品的功能,但是现在的广告为了达到吸引顾客的目的,纷纷引用名人说的话,这样可能会误导消费者(quote out of context)。听力的例子是电影,电影开场前,打的广告是引用名人的话,但是电影播放后结果确实是很不好。




文章:一个proposal, 建议学校拿出一部分activity budget给学生参加 academic conferences.

男 生:觉得这个建议不好,有两点原因:1) 活动经费应该就给那些原来intended for的活动,比如cultural activities, extracurricular activities,   for example, concerts. 2) 学校其他的academic departments 已经有给学生参加学术会议的经费预算,学生只要申请,教授会决定是否给钱让学生去开会。

要求:summarize proposal, 然后说男生的评价








阅读解释概念:internal attribute: 将事物发生的原因归结自己的内在问题,而不是外界因素。



Task 5:


The woman is working as a teaching assistant for a professor and she’s supposed to grade like 40 exam sheets which is due the next day. But she forgot that she’s got other work to do tonight. The first solution is to talk to her professor to reschedule the job. The second solution is to stay up late for both tasks.










  女生:遇到麻烦了。校报一个写movie review的家伙叫Jack(听个大概,音)要回家去,这期不能写专栏了,我很头痛。



  Jack 的专栏已经有些年头了,大家都熟悉了


  女生:旧文章。。。。这个。。。那就不是新的movie review 了呀。












Problem: The man is going on a trip but he lost his camera.

Solution 1: He can buy a new camera. It will be good for future use, too, but it’s expensive and he will have less money for the trip.

Solution 2: He can borrow Jack’s camera, but he’s worried he might break it or lose it.



问题:audition 和 concert同晚

 1 go to the first part of the concert and go to the audition


 2 go to ad. at another day




Problem: The band that’s supposed to come to perform in the university got a scheduling problem and now they can’t come.

Solution 1: Hire another band

Pro: The show will still be on time

Con: The students may not like the new band

Solution 2: Hire the old band and postpone the performance


Con: People will be busy with the finals next week, it’s hard to say if a lot of people will come








【问题】:Briefly summarize the problem and two possible solutions. Then state which solution you recommend and explain why.



【学生困难】:一女生的part time job是working with young,然后计划下周要带一群孩子去参观science museum,但向导tour guy生病了very sick。于是女生没办法带孩子去了。
男生说出方案2、换个时间再去参观reschedule her time。但女生说换时间的话,又要和博物馆重新预约,又要从家长那里拿permission,还要arrange tickets。



The man’s problem is that he left his keys in the dorm and he forgot to take his paper with him, which should be handed in today. He’s roommate was in another city now. There are two solutions for him. First, he should tell the professor but his paper was regarded late. Second, he could ask the administrator of the dorm to open the door but it would cost him 15 dollars.



音乐会什么,因为要下雨,2个solutions, woman:贴告示说移到下星期,man:虽然下雨会wet但是气温还warm,而且听众可能不介意, woman又说:但是大家可能看到外面要下雨就打消来的年头了,问题:总结2个solutions



男生要打印东西,但是他要去学校和不方便,两个方法,1 从同学那买个二手的打印机,但是比较容易坏,并且打印效果不好,2 买新的,贵,但是男生还有两年毕业,可以买个新的也比较值



Man's Problem: He has a study group tomorrow with other students for a physics exam, but there is a presentation on writing novels held at the same time.


Possible Solutions:

1) Attend the study group:

- Can't change the time since other students aren't free at other times.

- It's better to study with them because they are better at physics than he is, and he has some materials that he doesn't fully understand. (Communicating by email isn't helpful)

- Can read the article and listen to the recording on the presentation afterwards.

2) Go to the Presentation:

- He is passionate about writing and really wants to go.

- The writer giving the presentation may not come to his university again。

- Reading the article on the event website is not the same as listening to the presentation in-person.

- The man can study on his own. The other members in the study group said he could email them if he had questions.



口语五:女生室友忘带冬季外套让她开车到机场送, 她去, 时间太长;不去又不好, 况且她室友最近帮了她的忙。




一 个女生生病了,不想外出,但是她是youth center的volunteer,应该带一帮小孩子去zoo看动物。两种解决办法,方法一是reschedule去动物园的时间,但这是一个 special exhibit of 一种老虎,孩子们会很喜欢,而且是最后一天,不去很可惜。方法二是让另外一个志愿者Megan代孩子们去,但是Megan自己要复习物理课内容参加考试, 女生觉得让朋友做出这种牺牲自己过意不去。




woman 收到一个去marine research的offer,但是给的钱不够她去交下学期的tuition. man说:1、explain to them and ask for more money(women怕他们收回offer);2、take a part-time job(woman说怕时间不够太累) 问题是:这个女生的Dilemma是什么,你认为应该怎么做,为什么?



男 生向女生抱怨自己刚才正在做research project,结果不小心erased his data(删掉了数据),而且没有copy。女生提出了两点possible solution:给emergence打电话,让他们来修理,因为有晚间服务,但是男生说太贵。女生于是建议向教授要求extension,男生担心教 授strict,会take points(减分)。


Task 6:

1. The professor talks about why solidarity develops in different societies.

One reason is that all society members do the same kind of job. For example, people in rural areas are mainly farmers who deal with basic work and so they share similar lives. Solidarity develops in this society because the same job creates a sense of unity.

The other reason is because of different divisions of job. For instance, people in town have different tasks like doctors and stuff, and they are interdependent. Solidarity develops in this kind of society because people depend on each other.



Soil中也有生存的mammal . Firstly, they must be able to move, for the soil is not like the water, it's thick and condense. 2, able to protect themselves from things like the particles in soil.

接 着教授举了2 examples. 1,mow, has strong feet, like the shovel, that can dig deeply  2, ……。 has tiny eyes, also have hair that cover their eye from particle infection.



广 告里的名人效应。说名人做广告当然很好,但是有两点风险。第一是人们太关注明星而忽视了产品,举了个pizza的例子,人们只注意看那个知名的喜剧演员 了,谁都不去注意pizza,结果pizza卖得不好。第二是有时候名人前后表现不一致,举了电脑的例子,某名人在做广告时说她最喜欢XX电脑,但接受杂 志采访时又说其实自己不用电脑,结果这电脑也滞销了。



Waiting Time

  很多成功营销的秘诀就是waiting time.但对商业行为而言,关键并不是实际等待的时间,而是感知等待时间conceived waiting time,就是the time that consumers think they are waiting.

  商家一般通过两种策略来cut conceived waiting time。

   (1),让顾客有事可做:Let the consumers have something to do.给了两个例子,一是在医院休息室的doctor’s waiting room,放一电视TV,大家看电视,不知不觉时间就过去了;二是在电梯口elevator,放一镜子mirror,大家对着镜子臭美一下,时间就过去 了,就cannot conceived the waiting time了。

   (2),告诉顾客他们实际上等待了多久tell them the real waiting time。很多人就是自己觉得等得长,他等了十分钟觉得已经等了二十分钟了,于是就着急。这第二种策略最常见的就是火车站,大喇叭里不停的告诉你,还有多 长时间,通过这种tell you the truth 的方式,来reduce conceived waiting time.

  问题:什么是conceived waiting time以及商家reduce conceived waiting time的策略。



广告的口号,两种slogan,1、for the whole company  2、for specific product




Memory gaps, we fill our memory gaps inaccurately in two ways.

Way 1: with plausible guesses and assumptions

Example 1: 车祸后被要求回忆,他们会说出一些有道理但不真实的原因,比如司机在打电话或安全带没系

Way 2: others’ suggestions and opinions

Example 2: 车祸后被要求回忆,如果问题是”司机当时开车的速度怎样”,人们会被速度所影响





1. 判断location: an insect can use this chemical to guide another insect from food to home。举例:蜜蜂在外找食,在巢里的其他蜜蜂就会发出这种激素,帮助找食的蜜蜂找到自己的巢。

2. this chemical is the signal to show that female animals are ready to mate交配。举例:a female moth can relapse this chemical, so a male moth can know this female moth is ready to mate and can find where it is。" S6: 暂时无法确定题目来源



Protective Adaptation
1. Structure adaptation -- grow specific body structure
EG:说一种B鲨鱼,个头小,身体弱,vulnerable to big sharks,最后经历漫长的演化尾部长出spike,防止其他比他大的鲨鱼的attack。

2. Behavior adaptation -- change behavior
EG:说北美的一种动物,当遇到天敌攻击时就会pretend death, shut eyes, heart beat slow, breath slight…






说 是有两种途径让动物们既可以在白天活动也可以在夜里活动,第一种是make light怎么的(忘了),给出的例子是fox有一种很特殊的layer 能借助月光看清东西。 第二种是 可以通过缩小眼睛的一个什么(eyes pupil不确定拼写对不对)瞳孔吧,例子还是FOX,可以调节瞳孔大小,来减少光的强度,所以他们还是可以在白天摄取食物。



The professor talks about two types of suspense in a movie.

The first type is that the audience feels interesting to guess the end. For example, two heroes set the same goal, but the audiences have no idea who comes first.

The second type is that the audiences know the end but they have no clue how to get to the end. For example, in a love story, the hero and heroine doom to meet in the end, but how they meet each other becomes intriguing.



Lecture: Small Business: drawbacks on home-based business
For many small businesses, instead of renting, they prefer to work from home. Though working from home has its merits, a home-based business has some drawbacks.
1) Can't Maintain a Professional Image
People working in home-based businesses don't set a clear boundary between business and personal life. The customers may think they are not professional and serious about the business. For example, if a home-based business is a catering service that provides food for some major event, a customer would call and not expect a baby crying in the background. However, if it happened, the customer will for sure think that the business is not professional enough for their event and not trust the ability of the caterer to provide good-quality food.
2) Will Affect the Lives of the Neighbors
Use the catering example again, the business may hire two or more workers to help with the preparation of food. These workers may need to park their cars on the street, which would take up the neighbors' parking spots. Having their spots taken, the neighbors would definitely complain.

Question: Describe the two drawbacks of home-based businesses.



Ecosystem engineering: 动物住在一个地方,这个地方会变得适合其他动物生存。两种方式



口语六:老师总希望得到feedback, feedback DE characters  1 focus on  students    2. focus on 其他



人 类发明创造有2种可能:有目的性(intentional),无目的性(accidental)。有目的性的举例是发明一种眼镜,可以不用让人在看远距离 和近距离的时候频繁换眼镜。无目的性的例子是X-RAY的发明,是某个科学家在实验室里发现的物体影像,进而应用于人体医学。 "



Wetland's two benefits for animals.

1). for nursery, sharks lay eggs in wetlands close to the ocean, because wetlands are shallow, there are not large predators, baby sharks can grow safely in the wetlands and survive in the ocean.

作为孕育地。动物可以lay eggs or give birth, 直到它们的宝宝长大成熟。举例,一种鲨鱼在靠近海洋的湿地产卵,因为这里大动物少,可以减少被捕食者捕食的几率;

2). for rest and find food. Immigrating birds, for example, paper, during the long journey of immigration, stop the wetlands to find the food because they can find similar food like before.

question 6【讲课要点】two ways the animals use wetland。

to rest and feed themselves. 举例,一种要cross美洲的migrate bird, 在长途迁徙的过程中需要休息或者觅食,这时候湿地发挥了很大的作用:在这里可以resting and setting,这里还有很多吃的,就跟它们平时吃的一样,所以很适合停留。




讲课要点】:Two Economic Changes in Ancient Civilization

1. Currency: this monetary form made life easier. For example, a man who bakes bread can now use money in exchange for a coat. Using money to trade can avoid the possible issue that the person who sells coats does not like bread.

2. Trade new things over a greater distance. For example, Romans can import silk fabric from China.



Lecture: Two Advantages of the Beta Testing Method in Business

A beta test is an opportunity that gives the intended audience some samples to try the product out first.

1) Get feedback from the customers

The producer can get feedback from the customers who try the product. They will know which aspects of the product the customers like and don't like. A camera company, for example, may give some professional photographers new sample cameras to test out. After testing, the photographers may report, for example, that the flash doesn't work well because it produces too much light. The company will then know they need to work on the flash to make the overall product more desirable.

2) Providing Free Advertising

If the tested audience thinks the new product is satisfactory, it will leave a positive impression in their minds and they may tell others about the product. Even if it’s not a perfect product at first, the efforts taken by the company to improve it will convince the photographer customers that the new camera will be very good. They, in turn, will tell other photographer friends about the new product and encourage greater sales.



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